Tag: U.S. Navy

Feb. 23, 2023

Seaborne Evacuation of Iran

Almost one year after Jimmy Carter became president of the United States a revolution erupted in Iran that would bring about major social, political, and economic change. It would also compel Western nationals living there to leave the country in a rather urgent manner.In the wake of the Iranian Revolution (January 1978 - February 1979), many

Feb. 7, 2023

Remember the Men of the Maine

On 15 February 1898, the battleship Maine exploded while visiting Havana, Cuba. The loss of the ship would drive the United States and Spain to war within a few months. However, the global significance of the disaster should not overshadow the lives lost and the many wounded. 253 men died in the explosion, and another seven died of injuries over

Feb. 7, 2023

Why did the USS Maine explode?

Few U.S. ships are as well remembered as the battleship Maine. Unlike Constitution, Monitor, or Enterprise, though, the ship is not famous for its wartime record, long career, or remarkable innovation. Rather, Maine is remembered for exploding in Havana harbor on 15 February 1898. The death of 260 crewmen and officers would be tragedy enough, but

Jan. 26, 2023

"Reduced to Starvation”: The Japanese Evacuation of Guadalcanal, January-February 1943

Over the course of the Solomon Islands campaigns, which began in August 1942 with landings on Guadalcanal, Allied forces slowly established air and maritime superiority over the region. While both the Allies and the Japanese operated at the end of long, tenuous supply lines—the closest major Japanese base was at Rabaul and the closest Allied base

Nov. 28, 2022

Daisy Chains and Torpedoes at Tassafaronga, 30 November 1942

Fatigue, dehydration, and starvation plagued thousands of Imperial Japanese ground troops scattered across Guadalcanal in November 1942. Recent attempts to resupply these forces via “the Tokyo Express”—the employment of Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) destroyers to deliver supplies and equipment from Rabaul to Guadalcanal—were unsuccessful as American

Nov. 2, 2022

Radio over Radar: Night Fighting Chaos at Guadalcanal (12-13 November 1942)

The tropical evening sun fell beyond the horizon in the southern Solomon Islands, showering the area in brilliant hues of salmon and auburn. In this distance, cracks of lightning peeled across the sky as charcoal clouds billowed into the area. Early that evening, 12 November 1942, Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan received a report indicating that

Oct. 12, 2022

USS Constitution Launches – “A Magnificent Spectacle!” – Part II

Editor’s Note: On May 10, 2022, Naval History and Heritage Command began commemorating the 225th anniversary of the launch of the first of the U.S. Navy’s six frigates (United States), which began the new United States Navy. The launch of the frigates is a significant moment in both U.S. Navy and American history, and the U.S. Navy’s earliest

Oct. 11, 2022

Racial Unrest Aboard Kitty Hawk

At approximately 1830 on 12 October 1972, Seaman Apprentice Terry Avinger waited in line to receive his evening meal while serving in the aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk (CVA-63). When he approached the white cook serving food, Avinger, a black man, requested two sandwiches, but the cook sharply refused, offering only one. Frustrated by the rebuff,

Oct. 5, 2022

Variation on a Theme: Groping Blindly in the Dark at Savo Island and Cape Esperance

Low-hanging clouds drifted listlessly across a moonless sky on a tropical midsummer night. The occasional thunderclap stirred the silence and temporarily illuminated the otherwise calm seas that enveloped the Solomon Islands. In the months following the initial July 1942 occupation of Guadalcanal by Japanese forces, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN)

Sept. 16, 2022

When Bud Met Mouza: The Zumwalt’s Whirlwind Romance and Lifelong Love

Mouza Coutelais-du-Roche married Lieutenant Elmo Zumwalt Jr. after a three-week whirlwind romance in Shanghai. The challenges she faced adapting to both a new country and life as a Navy spouse inspired her lifelong mission to support Navy families.